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Epicrionops sp.
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Gymnophiona
Clade: Apoda
Family: Rhinatrematidae
Nussbaum, 1977


Rhinatrematidae is a family of caecilians, also known as the Neotropical tailed caecilians, American tailed caecilians. or beaked caecilians. They are found in the equatorial countries of South America.[1][2]

They are usually regarded as the most basal of the caecilian families, with numerous characteristics lacking in the other groups. For example, they still possess tails, and their mouths are not recessed on the underside of their heads. They lay their eggs in cavities in the soil. The larvae have external gills, and live in seepage areas until they metamorphose. The adults live in moist soil and leaf litter.[3]


The 14 species in three genera are:[1][2]


  1. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2020). "Rhinatrematidae Nussbaum, 1977". Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.vz.0001. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Rhinatrematidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  3. ^ Nussbaum, Ronald A. (1998). Cogger, H.G.; Zweifel, R.G. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-12-178560-4.
  4. ^ Wilkinson, Mark; Reynolds, Robert P.; Jacobs, Jeremy F. (2021). "A new genus and species of rhinatrematid caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Rhinatrematidae) from Ecuador". Herpetological Journal. 31 (1): 27–34.
  5. ^ Gower et al. (2010) "A new species of Rhinatrema Duméril & Bibron (Amphibia: Gymnophiona:Rhinatrematidae) from Guyana"

Further reading[edit]